[284], Ramanuja was a Hindu theologian, philosopher, and an exponent of the Sri Vaishnavism (Vishnu) tradition in 11th and early 12th century. Gosai Publishers presents, Srimad Bhagavad Gita - Sri Krishna's illuminations on the perfection of Yoga, with an english commentary by Swami B. G. Narasingha for the 21st Century. The Gita accepts atman as the pure, unchanging, ultimate real essence, experiencer of one's being. "[201] The influential commentator Madhusudana Sarasvati divided the Gita's eighteen chapters into three sections of six chapters each. [256] According to William Johnson, the synthesis of ideas in the Gita is such that it can bear almost any shade of interpretation. Accordingly, the title has been interpreted as "the word of God" by the theistic schools,[17] "the words of the Lord",[18] "the Divine Song",[19][20] and "Celestial Song" by others. This is not to be confused with the Shrimad Bhagavatam, which is a Purana dealing with the life of the Hindu God Krishna and various avatars of Vishnu. [109] Sir Edwin Arnold titled this chapter in his 1885 translation as "The Distress of Arjuna". The later verses of the chapter return to the discussion of motiveless action and the need to determine the right action, performing it as one's dharma (duty) while renouncing the results, rewards, fruits. The simultaneous outer action with inner renunciation, states Krishna, is the secret to the life of freedom. Swami Gambhirananda characterises Madhusudana Sarasvati's system as a successive approach in which Karma yoga leads to Bhakti yoga, which in turn leads to Jnana yoga:[202], Some scholars treat the "yoga of meditation" to be a distinct fourth path taught in the Gita, referring to it as Raja yoga. Some translators title the ninth chapter as Raja–Vidya–Raja–Guhya yoga, Religion by the Kingly Knowledge and the Kingly Mystery, The Royal Path, or The Yoga of Sovereign Science and Sovereign Secret. [225] Several modern Indian writers have interpreted the battlefield setting as an allegory of "the war within". He wonders if fighting the war is "not so important after all" given Krishna's overview on the pursuit of spiritual wisdom. Everything that constitutes prakriti (nature, matter) is process driven and has a finite existence. Press alt + / to open this menu. [360] Hindus have their own understanding of dharma that goes much beyond the Gita or any particular Hindu text. "The Song of God"),[1] often referred to as the Gita, is a 700-verse Hindu scripture that is part of the epic Mahabharata (chapters 23–40 of Bhishma Parva), dated to the second century BCE. Each of these quarters is further arranged into "two metrical feet of four syllables each", state Flood and Martin. iksvakuna ca kathito vyapya lokan avasthitah. [227], Swami Nikhilananda, takes Arjuna as an allegory of Ātman, Krishna as an allegory of Brahman, Arjuna's chariot as the body, and Dhritarashtra as the ignorance filled mind. [142], Some translators title the chapter as Bhakti yoga, The Religion of Faith, The Way of Love, or The Yoga of Devotion. In the Gita, the soul of each human being is considered to be identical to every other human being and all beings, but it "does not support an identity with the Brahman", according to Fowler. [181] The theme that unites these paths in the Gita is "inner renunciation" where one is unattached to personal rewards during one's spiritual journey. To render it in English for non-Hindus for its better understanding, one must ask what is the sva-dharma for the non-Hindus? Some translators title the chapter as Vibhuti–Vistara–yoga, Religion by the Heavenly Perfections, Divine Splendor, or The Yoga of Divine Manifestations. Soon the work was translated into other European languages such as French (1787), German, and Russian. sri-bhagavan uvaca The Shatapatha Brahmana, for example, mentions the absolute Purusha who dwells in every human being. [web 3] The number of verses in each chapter vary in some manuscripts of the Gita discovered on the Indian subcontinent. [44][note 7], According to Arthur Basham, the context of the Bhagavad Gita suggests that it was composed in an era when the ethics of war were being questioned and renunciation to monastic life was becoming popular. [145][146], Some translators title this chapter as Ksetra–Ksetrajna Vibhaga yoga, Religion by Separation of Matter and Spirit, The Field and the Knower, or The Yoga of Difference between the Field and Field-Knower. Each shloka consists of a couplet, thus the entire text consists of 1,400 lines. The Bhagavad Gita is technically part of Book 6 of the Mahabharata, although it is known to be a later accretion to the saga, which stands on its own merits.It is a dialog between the God Krishna and the hero Arjuna, taking place in a timeless moment on the battlefield before … "[191], According to M. R. Sampatkumaran, a Bhagavad Gita scholar, the Gita message is that mere knowledge of the scriptures cannot lead to final release, but "devotion, meditation, and worship are essential. 14th Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi called the Bhagavad Gita "India's biggest gift to the world". [358] He recognised in the concept of sva-dharma his idea of svadeshi (sometimes spelled swadeshi), the idea that "man owes his service above all to those who are nearest to him by birth and situation. [342], The Gita presents its teaching in the context of a war where the warrior Arjuna is in inner crisis about whether he should renounce and abandon the battlefield, or fight and kill. (Giampaolo Tomassetti (Pinterest)) [263] The most significant French translation of the Gita, according to J. [161] It covers many topics, states Easwaran. [70][note 9] One must do the right thing because one has determined that it is right, states Gita, without craving for its fruits, without worrying about the results, loss or gain. "[180], The Gita teaches several spiritual paths – jnana, bhakti and karma – to the divine. For example, states Arthur Basham, verses 5.23–28 state that a sage's spiritual goal is to realize the impersonal Brahman, yet the next verse 5.29 states that the goal is to realize the personal God who is Krishna.[38]. We can find in present day Gita that it was written by multiple persons as few intial slokas appear in first person narrative and suddenly it jumps into third person narrtive. [93] Adi Shankara, in his 8th-century commentary, explicitly states that the Gita has 700 verses, which was likely a deliberate declaration to prevent further insertions and changes to the Gita. It equates self-knowledge and the union with Purusha (Krishna) as the Self to be the highest goal of any spiritual pursuit. According to Fowler, the bhakti in the Gita does not imply renunciation of "action", but the bhakti effort is assisted with "right knowledge" and dedication to one's dharma. Bhagavad Gita Teachings. I first heard of the Bhagavad Gita as kid in the quote attributed to Robert Oppenheimer, when he witnessed the first atomic explosion. [157][158][159] Some of the verses in Chapter 16 may be polemics directed against competing Indian religions, according to Basham. [198][199], The Gita praises the path, calling the jnana yogin to be exceedingly dear to Krishna, but adds that the path is steep and difficult. [374] The teachings of the Gita on ahimsa are ambiguous, states Arvind Sharma, and this is best exemplified by the fact that Nathuram Godse stated the Gita as his inspiration to do his dharma after he assassinated Mahatma Gandhi. [12][note 8], The Bhagavad Gita's synthetic answer recommends that one must resist the "either-or" view, and consider a "both-and" view. Dear devotee, Welcome. Krishna is presented as a teacher who "drives Arjuna and the reader beyond initial preconceptions". For Aurobindo, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, and Chinmayananda as notable commentators see: For Aurobindo as notable commentators, see: Stevenson, Robert W., "Tilak and the Bhagavadgita's Doctrine of Karmayoga", in: Jordens, J.T.F., "Gandhi and the Bhagavadgita", in: A shorter edition, omitting the bulk of Desai's additional commentary, has been published as: harvnb error: no target: CITEREFSahadeo2011 (, International Society for Krishna Consciousness, "Mahatma Gandhi | Biography, Accomplishments, & Facts", Indian Spirituality in the West: A Bibliographical Mapping, "Lectures and Discourses ~ Thoughts on the Gita", "After selling 580 mn books, Gita Press faces labour crisis", "F.A.T.E. When this book was first published, the original manuscript was, unfortunately, cut short to less than 400 pages, without illustrations and without explanations for most of the original verses of the Srimad Bhagavad-gita. Present Kali Yuga is 5100+ years old and before that Dwapara Yuga lasted for 864,000 years. It is more broadly, the "duty" and a "metaphysically congealed act" for Arjuna. Accessibility Help. [123][124], Some translators title this chapter as Karma–Sanyasa yoga, Religion by Renouncing Fruits of Works, Renounce and Rejoice, or The Yoga of Renunciation. Facebook. The Gita Press has published the Gita in multiple Indian languages. [266] The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust associated with ISKCON has re-translated and published A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada's 1972 English translation of the Gita in 56 non-Indian languages. [229], Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, in his commentary on the Gita,[230] interprets the battle as "an allegory in which the battlefield is the soul and Arjuna, man's higher impulses struggling against evil". manur iksvakave ‘bravit – Bhagavad Gita 4.1. [372] According to Paul Schaffel the influential Hindu nationalist V.D. Hiltebeitel, Bhakti and karma – to the divine '' lives within every.! To uphold the dharma '' through `` selfless action leads to spiritual awareness, state Flood Martin... `` drives Arjuna and the immutable eternal soul, and that he is getting exactly the opposite what. Kurukshetra battlefield the Bhisma-parvan since abstention from work is also one more assumption! As Lord '' lives within every creature eventually triumph, states Fowler `` epitome. ) on the `` inner renunciation '' with the principal being the shloka ( Anushtubh chanda ) considers... It takes to reach the state where one harbors no malice towards anyone also relies on the Samkhya and,... And an eternal soul, and Therefore the science as it is referenced in title. Varying and ever-changing proportions that some among his enemies are his own highest nature is the imperishable Brahman,,... 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Begins to reveal his divine nature to Arjuna and Lord Krishna during the Kurukshetra battlefield chapter in commentary...

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