The geographic center of population of Montana is in sparsely populated Meagher County, in the town of White Sulphur Springs. Beginning in 1909, these elections became nonpartisan. [148] Some farmers came with the arrival of the Great Northern and Northern Pacific Railroads throughout the 1880s and 1890s, though in relatively small numbers. The term "oysters" in the dish's name is a another name for the actual main ingredient, which is bull calf testicles. It could be a sign of a heart valve disease. There are five public service commissioners, who are elected on a regional basis. No towns are precisely antipodal to Kerguelen, though Chester and Rudyard are close. The U.S. Constitution provides each state with two senators. The first schools were subscription schools that typically met in the teacher's home. The southern third of the Bitterroot range blends into the Continental Divide. At the state level, the pattern of split-ticket voting and divided government holds. The Clark Fork of the Columbia (not to be confused with the Clarks Fork of the Yellowstone River) rises near Butte[59] and flows northwest to Missoula, where it is joined by the Blackfoot River and Bitterroot River. They are overseen by District Court judges. The design was only slightly modified after Montana became a state and adopted it as their Great Seal in 1893. [50] The glaciated plains are generally covered in clay, gravel, sand, and silt left by the proglacial Lake Great Falls or by moraines or gravel-covered former lake basins left by the Wisconsin glaciation 85,000 to 11,000 years ago. During the war, about 30 Japanese Fu-Go balloon bombs were documented to have landed in Montana, though no casualties nor major forest fires were attributed to them. [26] There they join the Saskatchewan River, which ultimately empties into Hudson Bay. [45] Known as laccoliths, they formed when igneous rock protruded through cracks in the sedimentary rock. [266], Snowmobiling is popular in Montana, which boasts over 4,000 miles of trails and frozen lakes available in winter. Decisions of the court are appealable directly to the Montana Supreme Court. Montana District Courts are the courts of general jurisdiction in Montana. The state also has five Micropolitan Statistical Areas, centered on Bozeman, Butte, Helena, Kalispell and Havre. The Montana Judicial Nomination Commission develops short lists of nominees for all five Water Judges, who are then appointed by the Chief justice of the Montana Supreme Court (subject to confirmation by the Montana Senate). Extensive new constitutional rights for victims of crime were approved in 2016. However, the grizzly bear and Canadian lynx are listed as a threatened species only for the mainland 48 states. Baseball is the minor-league sport with the longest heritage in the state, and Montana is home to three Minor League Baseball teams, all members of the Pioneer League: the Billings Mustangs, Great Falls Voyagers, and Missoula Osprey. [56][57] Montana's water resources provide for recreation, hydropower, crop and forage irrigation, mining, and water for human consumption. [302] Also notable is Representative (later Senator) Thomas H. Carter, the first Catholic to serve as chairman of the Republican National Committee (from 1892 to 1896).[303]. There are fall bow and general hunting seasons for elk, pronghorn antelope, whitetail deer and mule deer. The mountains of Montana have yielded fortunes in gold and silver since the first substantial deposits were discovered in the mid 1800's (Montana's state motto is "Oro y Plata" - Spanish for "gold and silver"). Painter and sculptor Charles Marion Russell, known as "the cowboy artist", created more than 2,000 paintings of cowboys, Native Americans, and landscapes set in the Western United States and in Alberta, Canada. EXECUTIVE MANSION, The war created a boom for Montana mining, lumber, and farming interests, as demand for war materials and food increased. The front is often well defined, causing a large temperature drop in a 24-hour period. Archived from the original on April 6, 2016. Butte began as a gold camp. Greg Gianforte is the current officeholder. District Court judges are elected, and serve six-year terms. [242] One is a member of the Great Northwest Athletic Conference. [316] All other symbols were adopted throughout the 20th century, save for Montana's newest symbol, the state butterfly, the mourning cloak, adopted in 2001,[314] and the state lullaby, "Montana Lullaby", adopted in 2007. A new constitution was drafted, which made the legislative and executive branches much more equal in power and which was much less prescriptive in outlining powers, duties, and jurisdictions. People from all over Montana travel to shop at Billings, as well as people from Wyoming and North Dakota. The state spans from below the 45th parallel (the line equidistant between the equator and North Pole) to the 49th parallel, and elevations range from under 2,000 feet (610 m) to nearly 13,000 feet (4,000 m) above sea level. [103], The climate has become warmer in Montana[when?] The U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Reclamation administers approximately 300,000 acres (1,200 km2) of land and water surface in the state. There is a Youth Court in every judicial district, and decisions of the Youth Court are appealable directly to the Montana Supreme Court. This name is fitting as the state has over 50 mountain ranges. The Courts of Montana are established by the Constitution of Montana. [310], Montana has one city, Billings, with a population over 100,000; and two cities with populations over 50,000: Missoula and Great Falls. Hard-rock mining had begun in the 1880s, but shaft mining commenced when vast deposits of copper were discovered there. [66] Major tributaries of the Yellowstone include the Boulder,[83] Stillwater,[84] Clarks Fork,[85] Bighorn,[86] Tongue,[87] and Powder Rivers. From statehood in 1889 until 1913, Montana was represented in the United States House of Representatives by a single representative, elected at-large. These include regulatory programs that protect producers, consumers and the environment, as well as development and marketing programs to foster growth in Montana agriculture. Montana's single congressional district holds the largest population of any district in the country, which means its one member in the House of Representatives represents more people than any other member of the U.S. House (see List of U.S. states by population). A series of major mining discoveries in the western third of the state starting in 1862 found gold, silver, copper, lead, and coal (and later oil) which attracted tens of thousands of miners to the area. Famed daredevil Evel Knievel is also from Montana. Railroads have been an important method of transportation in Montana since the 1880s. It is the fourth-largest state in the United States after Alaska, Texas, and California;[12] it is the largest landlocked state. Bureau of Economic Analysis. The last recorded conflict in Montana between the U.S. Army and Native Americans occurred in 1887 during the Battle of Crow Agency in the Big Horn country. Maybe your knees give you trouble. Montana State Motto "Oro y Plata" The Montana state motto is a Spanish motto and in English it means "Gold and Silver" and was selected at the same time as the territorial seal for the state of Montana … North of Missoula is the largest population of nesting common loons in the western United States. Two of the nation's major river systems, the Missouri and Columbia, are born high in the Rocky Mountains of Montana. Montana is known as the headwaters state because much of the water which flows to the rest of the nation comes from the mountains of Montana. 22. Glacier National Park. Great Falls had the first woman newspaper editor in Montana. Joseph K. Toole, Governor of the State of Montana: [165] In February 1918, the Montana legislature had passed the Montana Sedition Act, which was a model for the federal version. This caused great hardship for farmers, ranchers, and miners. [108][110] Winters are warmer, too, and have fewer cold spells. Miners panning for gold would discard the small blue stones they’d find in the streams. Actor Gary Cooper and Jeanette Rankin, who was the first woman elected to Congress, are among those who found fame after living in the state. There are seven American Indian reservations in Montana. Montana (/mɒnˈtænə/ (listen)) is a state in the Northwestern United States. University of Montana is a public institution that was founded in 1893. [196] Today, the Missoula area has a large Hmong population [197] and the nearly 3,000 Montanans who claim Filipino ancestry are the largest Asian-American group in the state. Mom with COVID delivered baby she couldn't hold. [163], In June 1917, the U.S. Congress passed the Espionage Act of 1917, which was extended by the Sedition Act of 1918. Good food reveals a lot about any destination and nowhere is that more true than good ol’ Montana. Voters turned down a new convention in 1990 (84 percent no)[298] and again in 2010 (58.6 percent no). [103][106], Loma is the site of the most extreme recorded temperature change in a 24-hour period in the United States. At least 1500 Montanans died in the war. In 1985, the Montana Legislature passed a law allowing towns with fewer than 5,500 residents and unincorporated communities with fewer than 2,500 to levy a resort tax if more than half the community's income came from tourism. During World War II, the planned battleship USS Montana was named in honor of the state but it was never completed. In their place was an assortment of books brought by various emigrants. Other rich placer deposits were found at Last Chance Gulch, where the city of Helena now stands, Confederate Gulch, Silver Bow, Emigrant Gulch, and Cooke City. [176] Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus announced on September 3, 2015, that Virginia Class attack submarine SSN-794 will become the second commissioned warship to bear the name. Hard-rock mining had begun in the 1880s, but shaft mining commenced when vast deposits of copper were discovered there. The nearby city of Helena, also founded as a mining camp, had a similar mix in addition to a small Chinatown. Montana's Senate district is the fourth largest by area, behind Alaska, Texas, and California. Montanans have been a part of several major sporting achievements: Montana provides year-round outdoor recreation opportunities for residents and visitors. Federal and state agencies administer approximately 31,300,000 acres (127,000 km2), or 35 percent of Montana's land. Toole. Historically, U.S. Route 10 was the primary east–west highway route across Montana, connecting the major cities in the southern half of the state. [295] Major amendments include establishment of a reclamation trust (funded by taxes on natural resource extraction) to restore mined land (1974); restoration of sovereign immunity, when such immunity has been approved by a two-thirds vote in each house (1974); establishment of a 90-day biennial (rather than annual) legislative session (1974); establishment of a coal tax trust fund, funded by a tax on coal extraction (1976); conversion of the mandatory decennial review of county government into a voluntary one, to be approved or disallowed by residents in each county (1978); conversion of the provision of public assistance from a mandatory civil right to a non-fundamental legislative prerogative (1988);[296] a new constitutional right to hunt and fish (2004); a prohibition on gay marriage (2004); and a prohibition on new taxes on the sale or transfer of real property (2010). [305], In more recent presidential elections, Montana has voted for the Republican candidate in all but two elections from 1952 to the present. Pulitzer Prize winner Wallace Earle Stegner from Great Falls was often called "The Dean of Western Writers". The first school term started in early winter and lasted only until February 28. The legislative branch had split party control between the house and senate most years between 2004 and 2010, when the mid-term elections returned both branches to Republican control. Montana is home to Glacier National Park. Billings also is the medical center of the region, with two large hospitals. The deadline for a legislator to introduce an appropriations, revenue, or referenda bill is the 62nd legislative day. Actor Gary Cooper and Jeanette Rankin, who was the first woman elected to Congress, are among those who found fame after living in the state. All members are limited to serving no more than eight years in a single 16-year period. [317], Montana schoolchildren played a significant role in selecting several state symbols. The governor is Greg Gianforte, a Republican elected in 2020. With the help of an assistant teacher, Mrs. Farley,[231] Raymond was responsible for teaching 50 to 60 students each day out of the 81 students enrolled at the school. Classes were taught by Mr. In popular culture, a firm grip has long been associated with a macho image, but it turns out that an increased handgrip strength can help both women and men reduce the dangers associated with high blood pressure. Montana is famous for Yellowstone Park, wildlife, the Bighorn mountains and Glacier Park. [159], As World War I broke out, Jeannette Rankin, the first woman in the United States to be a member of Congress, voted against the United States' declaration of war. [290] In 1914, Montana granted women the vote. Maybe your back gets stiff on long car rides. [181] During the first decade of the new century, growth was mainly concentrated in Montana's seven largest counties, with the highest percentage growth in Gallatin County, which had a 32% increase in its population from 2000 to 2010. Find our other high-quality products from across the state. Hiking, fishing, hunting, watercraft recreation, camping, golf, cycling, horseback riding, and skiing are popular activities. The executive branch is headed by an elected governor. To Hon. Billings is the regional shopping center. [citation needed], The state's topography is roughly defined by the Continental Divide, which splits much of the state into distinct eastern and western regions. [45] The underlying surface consists of sandstone and shale. Weather and agricultural conditions are much harsher and drier west of the 100th meridian. Massive debt was one. Bozeman Yellowstone International Airport is the busiest airport in the state of Montana, surpassing Billings Logan International Airport in the spring of 2013. BEARFACTS. For other uses, see, "Montanan" redirects here. There is a spring hunting season for black bear and in most years, limited hunting of bison that leave Yellowstone National Park is allowed. Montana is famous for Yellowstone Park, wildlife, the Bighorn mountains and Glacier Park. He gave some speeches with inflammatory antiwar rhetoric. To become a certified teacher, Raymond took a test in her home and paid a $6 fee in gold dust to obtain a teaching certificate. Montana's motto, Oro y Plata, Spanish for "Gold and Silver", recognizing the significant role of mining, was first adopted in 1865, when Montana was still a territory. Complicating the wartime struggles, the 1918 influenza epidemic claimed the lives of more than 5,000 Montanans. Trapping of assorted fur-bearing animals is allowed in certain seasons and many opportunities exist for migratory waterfowl and upland bird hunting.[262][263]. Highway 212, the primary paved route between the two, passes through the northeast corner of Wyoming between Montana and South Dakota. [229] The first legislature authorized counties to levy taxes for schools, which set the foundations for public schooling. Montana hosts numerous arts and cultural festivals and events every year. In all, 77 named ranges are part of the Rocky Mountains. And how has the popularity of it changed over time, This article originally appeared on The two largest schools, the University of Montana and Montana State University, are members of the Big Sky Conference and have enjoyed a strong athletic rivalry since the early twentieth century. The coldest month varies between December and January depending on location, although figures are similar throughout. The Indian Education for All Act was passed in 1999 to provide funding for this mandate and ensure implementation. Hell Roaring Creek begins in southern Montana, and when combined with the Red Rock, Beaverhead, Jefferson, Missouri, and Mississippi River, is the longest river in North America and the fourth longest river in the world. Billings also is the medical center of the region, with two large hospitals. Montana offers almost 28 million acres of public lands, almost 30 percent of the state’s total acreage. [297], The 1972 constitution requires that voters determine every 20 years whether to hold a new constitutional convention. The mountains can receive over 100 inches (2,500 mm), for example the Grinnell Glacier in Glacier National Park gets 105 inches (2,700 mm). For other uses, see, Map of the United States with Montana highlighted, Reporting statehood from Helena: Full article text is. It has a law school. [308] Montana's population grew at about the national average during the 2000s, but it failed to regain its second seat in 2010. [163], In the wake of the legislative action in 1918, emotions rose. Democrats hold one of the state's two U.S. Senate seats with Jon Tester, as well as the governorship with Steve Bullock. Montana contains thousands of named rivers and creeks, 450 miles of which are known for “blue-ribbon” trout fishing. These three communities are the centers of Montana's three Metropolitan Statistical Areas. A second constitutional convention held in Helena in 1884 produced a constitution ratified 3:1 by Montana citizens in November 1884. Montana's House district is the largest congressional district in the United States by population, with just over 1,023,000 constituents. The organization is an outreach endeavor that is part of the College of Arts & Architecture at Montana State University, Bozeman. [220], Tourism is also important to the economy, with more than ten million visitors a year to Glacier National Park, Flathead Lake, the Missouri River headwaters, the site of the Battle of Little Bighorn, and three of the five entrances to Yellowstone National Park. *In the 1980s the absence of a sales tax became economically deleterious to communities bound to the state's tourism industry, as the revenue from income and property taxes provided by residents was grossly insignificant in regards to paying for the impact of non-residential travel—especially road repair. The book was adapted as a film in 1943, starring Gary Cooper, a native Montanan himself. All State Nicknames. [210] For kindergarten through 12th-grade students, an "Indian Education for All" curriculum from the Montana Office of Public Instruction is available free to all schools. [74] Montana also claims the disputed title of possessing the world's shortest river, the Roe River, just outside Great Falls. About 2000–3000 Chinese miners were in the mining areas of Montana by 1870, and 2500 in 1890. Burnings of German-language books and several near-hangings occurred. As the largest city in the five state region and the closest to the Bakken Formation, which is lousy with oil and gas, it plays an important role in oil refinery and drilling supplies. Its rivers feed the Pacific Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, and Hudson Bay. [21], The divide's northern section, where the mountains rapidly give way to prairie, is part of the Rocky Mountain Front. Attractions such as the Grand Canyon and Mount Rushmore naturally come to mind, as are its lasting imprints on global culture, such as Hollywood, music, sports, historical personalities, tech innovation, and more. [13][14] The Absaroka and Beartooth ranges in the state's south-central part are technically part of the Central Rocky Mountains. Christmas spirit saves NBA star from suspension Don’t chalk it up to aging. Her actions were widely criticized in Montana, where support for the war and patriotism were strong. [29] It contains the state's highest point, Granite Peak, 12,799 feet (3,901 m) high. Learn about Montana's agriculture industry from the Montana Department of Agriculture (MDA). [221], Montana's personal income tax contains seven brackets, with rates ranging from 1.0 to 6.9 percent. Upon arriving in Helena, Howard's troupe performed 12 encores of the new song to an enthusiastic audience and the governor proclaimed it the state song on the spot, though formal legislative recognition did not occur until 1945. [181] Based on 2013 census numbers, they contain 35 percent of Montana's population,[312] and the counties in which they are located are home to 62 percent of the state's population.[313]. [185], While the largest European-American population in Montana overall is German, pockets of significant Scandinavian ancestry are prevalent in some of the farming-dominated northern and eastern prairie regions, parallel to nearby regions of North Dakota and Minnesota. The lesser coat of arms of France as used by the, United States House Committee on Territories, List of amphibians and reptiles of Montana, Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Early Indian treaty territories in Montana, List of military installations in Montana, List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Treasure State Academic Information & Library Services, Gallatin College Montana State University, City College at Montana State University Billings, Great Falls College Montana State University, Montana Tech of the University of Montana, Bobcat Stadium (Montana State University), Bozeman Yellowstone International Airport, Learn how and when to remove this template message, United States congressional delegations from Montana, city courts, justice courts, and municipal courts, American Tradition Partnership, Inc. v. Bullock, Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, United States District Court for the District of Montana, United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Montana, "United States Summary: 2010, Population and Housing Unit Counts, 2010 Census of Population and Housing", "Montana tourist numbers down, spending up, report says", Canadian Council for Geographic Education 2013, Geographical Dictionary Of The World 1900, Waterbody Report-Clarks Fork Yellowstone River 2013, "Montana's wolf population remains strong", Montana Office of Public Instruction 2010, "U.S. Navy submarine will be named U.S.S. [23] Due to the configuration of mountain ranges in Glacier National Park, the Northern Divide (which begins in Alaska's Seward Peninsula)[24] crosses this region and turns east in Montana at Triple Divide Peak. “ Virginia City was really neat the drive up there was beautiful I could’ve stayed all day we went up there for the afternoon to eat and walk around downtown very cool very cool worth it ” No textbooks were used in the school. [126] In 1869 and 1870 respectively, the Cook–Folsom–Peterson and the Washburn–Langford–Doane Expeditions were launched from Helena into the Upper Yellowstone region and directly led to the creation of Yellowstone National Park in 1872. [315] The state flower, the Bitterroot, was adopted in 1895 with the support of a group called the Floral Emblem Association, which formed after Montana's Women's Christian Temperance Union adopted the bitterroot as the organization's state flower. The name Montana comes from a Spanish word meaning mountainous. The state is sometimes called "The Big Sky Country." Flowers native to Montana include asters, bitterroots, daisies, lupins, poppies, primroses, columbine, lilies, orchids, and dryads. There are 22 judicial districts in Montana, served by 56 District Courts and 46 District Court judges. Stub-Toe State The transcontinental NPR was completed on September 8, 1883, at Gold Creek. The Montana Supreme Court is the court of last resort in the Montana court system. Infamous sheriff and outlaw Henry Plummer constructed the first jail in Montana. [227] Another early subscription school was started by Thomas Dimsdale in Virginia City in 1863. If you would like to learn more about his profile, childhood, life and timeline, read on Ranked 45th in population (by the 2010 Census) it is 19th in native people,[190] who are 6.5% of the state's population—the sixth-highest percentage of all fifty. The council also passed rules limiting public gatherings and prohibiting the speaking of German in public. However, the legislature did not designate a state tree until 1949, when the Montana Federation of Garden Clubs, with the support of the state forester, lobbied for formal recognition. Montana became a state on Nov. 8, 1889, with Helena as the capital. A 1974 state severance tax on coal (which varied from 20 to 30%) was upheld by the Supreme Court of the United States in Commonwealth Edison Co. v. Montana, 453 U.S. 609 (1981). [309], Montana has 56 counties and a total of 364 "places" as defined by the United States Census Bureau; the latter comprising 129 incorporated places and 235 census-designated places. However, property taxes are assessed on livestock, farm machinery, heavy equipment, automobiles, trucks, and business equipment. [157] Significant drops occurred following the drought in 1919. [159], By 1910, homesteaders filed claims on over five million acres, and by 1923, over 93 million acres were farmed. It is the fourth-largest state by area, the eighth-least populous state, and the third-least densely populated state. [228] The first school year was scheduled to begin in January 1866, but severe weather postponed its opening until March. Kalispell is home to wineries and breweries, dairy farms, and vegetable producers. Montana has the largest grizzly bear population in the lower 48 states. The court employs 12 permanent special masters. The Treasure State. [10] When Ashley presented a bill to establish a temporary government in 1864 for a new territory to be carved out of Idaho, he again chose Montana Territory. See Medicare Supplement quotes now. [13] Most of Montana's hundred or more named mountain ranges are in the state's western half, most of which is geologically and geographically part of the northern Rocky Mountains. The USA, or America, in general, needs no introduction. [58] If Hudson Bay is considered part of the Arctic Ocean, Triple Divide Peak is the only place on Earth with drainage to three different oceans. [191] Other counties with large Native American populations include Blaine, Cascade, Hill, Missoula, and Yellowstone Counties. Hot dogs. Montana ranks 29th among the U.S. states and ranks well for its natural environment and infrastructure. Overall, since 1889 the state has voted for Democratic governors 60 percent of the time and Republican governors 40 percent of the time.

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